Is Central European archaeology atheoretical? If so, is this because it was (and is?) influenced heavily by German archaeology? Is there such a thing as a Central European archaeology at all? This volume approaches these questions from a number of angles. Deriving from a session organised by the German Theoretical Archaeology Group the papers assembled here reveal how universalist thought can be used for nationalist purposes, discuss Kossinnism in Poland and the influence of Sidelungsarchaologie , and highlight how politics have affected communication between European archaeologists from the very beginning and throughout the 20th century. Research attitudes such as empiricism, a "theory follows data" approach, and the love-hate relationship of the German tradition towards overt theorising are analysed. The papers also expose a wide array of new topics and research questions developed in Central Europe in recent years.