The Archaeology of the Lower City and Adjacent Suburbs [Hardback]

Kate Steane (Author); Margaret Darling (Author); Michael J. Jones (Author); Jenny Mann (Author); Alan Vince (Author); Jane Young (Author)

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ISBN: 9781782978527 | Published by: Oxbow Books | Series: Lincoln Archaeology Studies | Volume: 4 | Year of Publication: 2016 | Language: English 550p, H297 x W210 (mm) b/w illustrations

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The Archaeology of the Lower City and Adjacent Suburbs


This volume contains reports on excavations undertaken in the lower walled city at Lincoln, which lies on sloping ground on the northern scarp of the Witham gap, and its adjacent suburbs between 1972 and 1987, and forms a companion volume to LAS volumes 2 and 3 which cover other parts of the historic city. The earliest features encountered were discovered both near to the line of Ermine Street and towards Broadgate. Remains of timber storage buildings were found, probably associated with the Roman legionary occupation in the later 1st century AD. The earliest occupation of the hillside after the foundation of the colonia towards the end of the century consisted mainly of commercial premises, modest residences, and storage buildings. It seems likely that the boundary of the lower enclosure was designated before it was fortified in the later 2nd century with the street pattern belonging to the earlier part of the century. Larger aristocratic residences came to dominate the hillside with public facilities fronting on to the line of the zig-zagging main route. In the 4th century, the fortifications were enlarged and two new gates inserted. Examples of so-called ‘Dark Earth’ deposits were here dated to the very latest phases of Roman occupation.

Elements of some Roman structures survived to be reused in subsequent centuries. There are hints of one focus in the Middle Saxon period, in the area of St Peter’s church, but occupation of an urban nature did not recommence until the late 9th century with the first phases of Anglo-Scandinavian occupation recorded here. Sequences of increasingly intensive occupation from the 10th century were identified, with plentiful evidence for industrial activity, including pottery, metalworking and other, crafts, as well as parish churches. Markets were established in the 11th century and stone began to replace timber for residential structures from the mid-12th century with clear evidence of the quality of some of the houses. With the decline in the city’s fortunes from the late 13th century, the fringe sites became depopulated and there was much rebuilding elsewhere, including some fine new houses. There was a further revival in the later post-medieval period, but much of the earlier fabric, and surviving stretches of Roman city wall, were swept away in the 19th century.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors
Preface and Acknowledgements by M J Jones
Summaries: English, French, German

1 Introduction by M J Jones, K Steane and A Vince

2 Flaxengate (f72)
3 Grantham Place (gp81)
4 Swan Street/Grantham Street (sw82)
5 Danes Terrace (dt74)
6 Silver Street (lin73si)
7 Saltergate (lin73sa)
8 Hungate (h83)
9 Steep Hill (sh74 and sh87)
10 Chestnut House, Michaelgate (mch84)
11 Michaelgate (mg78)
12 Spring Hill, Michaelgate (spm83)
13 Motherby Hill (mh77)
14 Broadgate East (be73)
15 Discussion by M J Jones and A Vince,
with contributions by M J Darling, J Mann and J Young

I: The Archiving and Analysis Projects by A Vince and K Steane
II: Roman pottery codes
III: Post-Roman pottery codes


Reviews & Quotes

"Overall this forms a very detailed resource on a number of important excavations, of value not just to the archaeology of Lincoln, but also for wider Roman/medieval British urban archaeology."
Gavin Speed
Medieval Archaeology (17/10/2017)

"…[this book] allows us to gain a clear picture of early Roman settlement and activity […] I speak for others who dug in Lincoln in the 1970s and 1980s by saying that while I learnt a lot at the time, I am now delighted to see my distant efforts finally bearing such excellent fruit."
Patrick Ottaway
Britannia (14/08/2019)

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