• Building Memories: The Neolithic Cotswold Long Barrow at Ascott-under-Wychwood, Oxfordshire

    Building Memories: The Neolithic Cotswold Long Barrow at Ascott-under-Wychwood, Oxfordshire

    Don Benson(Editor); Alasdair Whittle(Author)

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    Published by : Oxbow Books
    It is just over forty years since the start of the excavations of the Ascott-under-Wychwood long barrow (1965-69) under the direction of Don Benson. The excavations belonged to the latter part of a great period of barrow digging in southern Britain, which was ending just as, by striking contrast, intensified investigation and fieldwork at causewayed enclosures were beginning. Although a long gap has passed since the excavations took place, they have nonetheless produced a rich and important set of results, and the analysis has been enhanced by more recent techniques. The site now joins Burn Ground and Hazleton North as one of only three Cotswold long barrows or cairns to have been more or less fully excavated. The barrow had been built in two main stages, in a series of bays defined by lines of stakes and stone, and filled mainly with earth and turf, with some stone; it was enclosed or faced by stone walling, the outermost being of very fine quality. The barrow contained two opposed pairs of stone cists, each with a short passage from the long sides of the monument. The cists and passages contained the remains of some 21 people (of all ages and both sexes), probably deposited in a variety of forms from fleshed inhumations to incomplete secondary remains and cremations. The barrow was built in the 38th century cal BC and was probably one of the earliest such constructions in the region. It was probably in use for only three to five generations, lasting into the 37th century cal BC. Occupation features from the early fourth millennium cal BC included small pits, hearths and two small timber post structures, and there were finds of pottery, flint, axe fragments, stone querns and animal bone. People used cattle, sheep and pigs, and there is a range of wild species, especially in the midden. The authors of this report not only document the finds and research, but also address wider questions of how the early Neolithic inhabitants viewed their society through the barrow, and how the development of the site reflected memory and interaction with a changing world.
  • St Peter's, Barton-upon-Humber, Lincolnshire: Volume 1, History, Archaeology and Architecture

    St Peter's, Barton-upon-Humber, Lincolnshire: Volume 1, History, Archaeology and Architecture

    Warwick Rodwell(Author)

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    Published by : Oxbow Books
    St Peter's, Barton-upon-Humber, is a redundant medieval church in the care of English Heritage. As a result of a major programme of research carried out between 1978 and 2007, it is now the most intensively studied parish church in the UK. Excavations between 1978 and 1984 investigated most of the interior of the building, as well as a swathe of churchyard around its exterior. At the same time, a stone-by-stone record and detailed archaeological study of the fabric and furnishings of the church was undertaken, continuing down to 2007. The twin aims of the project were to understand the architectural history and setting of this complex, multi-period building (Volume 1, Parts 1 and 2) and to recover a substantial sample of the population for palaeopathological study (Volume 2). An extensive programme of historical and topographical research also took place in order to set the archaeological evidence firmly in context. The nearby substantial church of St Mary, which was once a chapel dependent on St Peter's, has also been studied, as have the furnishings, fittings and funerary monuments in both buildings. The topography of the small market town and port of Barton has been researched and its Saxon and Norman defensive earthworks have been traced. All aspects of settlement, from the Roman period onwards, have been studied and the vicissitudes of the Christian community in this typical English country town reconstructed through the history, archaeology and architecture of its two magnificent churches.
  • St Peter's, Barton-upon-Humber, Lincolnshire - A Parish Church and its Community: Volume 2 The Human Remains

    St Peter's, Barton-upon-Humber, Lincolnshire - A Parish Church and its Community: Volume 2 The Human Remains

    T. Waldron(Author)

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    Published by : Oxbow Books
    The excavations at St Peter's church, Barton-upon-Humber, between 1978 and 1984 have yielded the largest collection of human remains in the UK, dating from the late tenth century to the mid-nineteenth. The twin aims of the project were to understand the architectural history and setting of this complex, multi-period building (Volume 1), and to recover a substantial sample of the population for palaeopathological study (Volume 2). An extensive programme of historical and topographical research also took place in order to set the archaeological evidence firmly in context. The parish registers, which extend back to the mid-sixteenth century, were transcribed, and these provide an important demographic overview of the population. The cemetery evidence revealed that the population is entirely secular, representing a cross-section of all levels of society living in the town and its hinterland. In total, 2,750 inhumations were examined, but there were also thousands of disarticulated bones - approximately three tons in weight - which could only be given the briefest examination. Those who were buried at St Peter's were subject not only to the normal visitations of disease and trauma but suffered an outbreak of the plague in 1593, when about a fifth of the population was lost. Taking the long view over the entire period, however, it is striking how many of the marks of health and vigour, popularly supposed to have changed substantially between the middle ages and the Victorian era, have remained relatively constant. Together, the two volumes provide fascinating insights into that mainstay of settlement - the small English market town.
  • Sandwich - The 'Completest Medieval Town in England': A Study of the Town and Port from its Origins to 1600

    Sandwich - The 'Completest Medieval Town in England': A Study of the Town and Port from its Origins to 1600

    Helen Clarke(Author); Sarah Pearson(Author); Mavis E. Mate(Author); Keith Parfitt(Author)

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    Published by : Oxbow Books
    To the casual visitor of today, Sandwich appears as simply a small inland market town on the bank of a modest river. But locals and historians have long known that in the Middle Ages it was a strategic and commercial seaport of great significance, trading with northern Europe and the Mediterranean and growing prosperous on this business. The medieval fabric of the town has been preserved to a remarkable extent, but historians and archaeologists have never agreed on quite where the first settlement was located. Nor has there been close study of what the surviving medieval buildings can tell us about Sandwich's development. It is the physical development of Sandwich that forms the focus of this volume, providing new theories on how, when and why the town came to take its present form. As well as providing a great amount of detail on the houses, churches and defences of medieval Sandwich, the authors apply the material evidence in order to draw out important social, economic and cultural facets in the evolution of the town. The study of Sandwich also has much wider implications, as despite being largely affected by its location, it also shared much with other English medieval towns in terms of its physical growth and the role of its major institutions. The story of the town, therefore, is both particular and general, and this detailed study gives new insights into the influences affecting urban development, both in the formative period of growth and in later periods in which towns adapted to new circumstances. The method presented here could therefore, be equally applicable to studies of other medieval towns. Maps, plans and photographs, all in full colour, supplement the text and graphically underline many of the conclusions.
  • Rural Settlement, Lifestyles and Social Change in the Later First Millennium AD at Flixborough, Lincolnshire: Anglo-Saxon Flixborough in its Wider Context

    Rural Settlement, Lifestyles and Social Change in the Later First Millennium AD at Flixborough, Lincolnshire: Anglo-Saxon Flixborough in its Wider Context

    Christopher Loveluck(Author)

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    Published by : Oxbow Books
    Between 1989 and 1991, excavations in the parish of Flixborough, North Lincolnshire, unearthed remains of an Anglo-Saxon settlement associated with one of the largest collections of artefacts and animal bones yet found on such a site. In an unprecedented occupation sequence from an Anglo-Saxon rural settlement, six main periods of occupation have been identified, dating from the seventh to the early eleventh centuries; with a further period of activity, between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries AD. The remains of approximately forty buildings and other structures were uncovered; and due to the survival of large refuse deposits, huge quantities of artefacts and faunal remains were encountered compared with most other rural settlements of the period. The quality of the overall archaeological data contained within the settlement sequence is important for both the examination of site-specific issues, and for the investigation of wider research themes and problems, facing settlement studies in England, between AD 600 and 1050. Volume 4, offers a series of thematic analyses, integrating all the forms of evidence to reconstruct the lifestyles of the inhabitants. These comprise settlement-specific aspects and wider themes. The former include relations with the surrounding landscape and region, trade and exchange, and specialist artisan activity. Whereas the wider themes consider approaches to the interpretation of settlement character, the social spectrum of its inhabitants, changing relationships between rural and emerging urban centres, and the importance of the excavated remains within contemporary studies of early medieval settlement and society in western Europe.
  • Mesolithic Studies In The North Sea Basin And Beyond

    Mesolithic Studies In The North Sea Basin And Beyond

    Kristian Pedersen(Author)

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    Published by : Oxbow Books
    The North Sea has acted as both physical barrier, separating regions from each other, and as the principal means of communication between the same. This duality can also be seen in its potential to be both yielding and destructive; providing food and resources, but also being capable of causing catastrophe. These paradoxical qualities are unlikely to have been lost on our hunter-gatherer ancestors, and they remain relevant to the way that the sea is perceived today. The sixteen papers in this edited volume look at the impact the North Sea had on Northern Europe in the Mesolithic period.
  • Life and Economy at Early Medieval Flixborough, c. AD 600-1000

    Life and Economy at Early Medieval Flixborough, c. AD 600-1000

    D. H. Evans (author); Christopher Loveluck (Author)

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    Published by : Oxbow Books
    Between 1989 and 1991, excavations in the parish of Flixborough, North Lincolnshire, unearthed remains of an Anglo-Saxon settlement associated with one of the largest collections of artefacts and animal bones yet found on such a site. In an unprecedented occupation sequence from an Anglo-Saxon rural settlement, six main periods of occupation have been identified, dating from the seventh to the early eleventh centuries; with a further period of activity, between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries AD. The remains of approximately forty buildings and other structures were uncovered; and due to the survival of large refuse deposits, huge quantities of artefacts and faunal remains were encountered compared with most other rural settlements of the period.

    Volume 2 contains detailed presentation of some 10,000 recorded finds, over 6,000 sherds of pottery, and many other residues and bulk finds, illustrated with 213 blocks of figures and 67 plates, together with discussion of their significance.It presents the most comprehensive, and currently unique picture of daily life on a rural settlement of this period in eastern England, and is an assemblage of Europe wide significance to Anglo-Saxon and early medieval archaeologists.
  • Farmers, Monks and Aristocrats: The environmental archaeology of Anglo-Saxon Flixborough

    Farmers, Monks and Aristocrats: The environmental archaeology of Anglo-Saxon Flixborough

    K. M. Dobney (Author); D. Jaques (Author); James Barrett (Author); Cluny Johnstone (Author)

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    Published by : Oxbow Books
    The environmental archaeological evidence from the site of Flixborough (in particular the animal bone assemblage) provides a series of unique insights into Anglo-Saxon life in England during the 8th to 10th centuries. The research reveals detailed evidence for the local and regional environment, many aspects of the local and regional agricultural economy, changing resource exploitation strategies and the extent of possible trade and exchange networks. Perhaps the most important conclusions have been gleaned from the synthesis of these various lines of evidence, viewed in a broader archaeological context. Thus, bioarchaeological data from Flixborough have documented for the first time, in a detailed and systematic way, the significant shift in social and economic aspects of wider Anglo-Saxon life during the 9th century AD., and comment on the possible role of external factors such as the arrival of Scandinavians in the life and development of the settlement. The bioarchaeological evidence from Flixborough is also used to explore the tentative evidence revealed by more traditional archaeological materials for the presence during the 9th century of elements of monastic life. The vast majority of bioarchaeological evidence from Flixborough provides both direct and indirect evidence of the wealth and social standing of some of the inhabitants as well as a plethora of unique information about agricultural and provisioning practices associated with a major Anglo-Saxon estate centre. The environmental archaeological record from Flixborough is without doubt one of the most important datasets of the early medieval period, and one which will provide a key benchmark for future research into many aspects of early medieval archaeology.
  • The Early Medieval Settlement Remains from Flixborough, Lincolnshire: The Occupation Sequence, c. AD 600–1000

    The Early Medieval Settlement Remains from Flixborough, Lincolnshire: The Occupation Sequence, c. AD 600–1000

    Christopher Loveluck (Author); David Atkinson (Author)

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    Published by : Oxbow Books
    Between 1989 and 1991, excavations in the parish of Flixborough, North Lincolnshire, unearthed remains of an Anglo-Saxon settlement associated with one of the largest collections of artefacts and animal bones yet found on such a site. In an unprecedented occupation sequence from an Anglo-Saxon rural settlement, six main periods of occupation have been identified, dating from the seventh to the early eleventh centuries; with a further period of activity, between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries AD. The remains of approximately forty buildings and other structures were uncovered; and due to the survival of large refuse deposits, huge quantities of artefacts and faunal remains were encountered compared with most other rural settlements of the period. The quality of the overall archaeological data contained within the settlement sequence is important for both the examination of site-specific issues, and for the investigation of wider research themes and problems, facing settlement studies in England, between AD 600 and 1050. Volume 1 focuses on the occupation sequence, looking at the structural and stratigraphical evidence from the site, and interpreting the changing use of the site during its lengthy occupation. This interpretation of the occupation sequence forms the basis for all thematic discussions in Volumes 3 and 4. It also examines the evidence for burials at the site, and places this into the wider context of sepulchral practices in mid and late Saxon England. Finally there is discussion of the osteological remains themselves, giving hints of the demographic spectrum of the inhabitants, their lifestyles and ailments.
  • The City by the Pool: Assessing the Archaeology of the City of Lincoln

    The City by the Pool: Assessing the Archaeology of the City of Lincoln

    D. Stocker(Author); Alan G. Vince(Author)

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    Published by : Oxbow Books
    This volume offers a new and up-to-date synthesis of Lincoln's long history as a major city and regional capital, from prehistory to 1945. The 'City by the Pool' was a major religious centre long before the Roman invasion and from bronze-age shamans to early Baptists people have always been attracted here for spiritual as well as mundane purposes. The authors argue for the presence of a major ritual causeway of the late Bronze and Iron Age and outline the extent to which ritual monuments also contributed to the character of Roman Lincoln. They hypothesise a Middle Saxon ecclesiastical and market site, at what later became Monks Abbey, and demonstrate that High Medieval Lincoln consisted of a ring of markets laid out around a reserved enclosure, housing the religious and secular aristocracy. They also reveal unexpected evidence for an urban concentration of early Dissenting communities, and finally, bringing the story up to date, they suggest that Industrial Lincoln was an entirely new city, and one not inaugurated until the 1840s - a century later than the date usually given. This book is based on more than a hundred publicly-funded excavations and building surveys undertaken between 1945 and 2000. It surveys all aspects of city life, from housing and fortifications to the water supply and rubbish disposal. It includes a CD Rom with a Geographic Information System (GIS) and a relational data-base known as LARA (the Lincoln Archaeological Research Assessment).
  • Archaeology in the PPG16 Era: Investigations in England 1990–2010

    Archaeology in the PPG16 Era: Investigations in England 1990–2010

    Timothy Darvill(Editor); Kerry Barrass(Editor); Vanessa Constant(Editor); Ehren Milner(Editor); Bronwen Russell(Editor)

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    Published by : Oxbow Books
    The Archaeological Investigations Project (AIP), funded by English Heritage, systematically collected information about the nature and outcomes of more than 86,000 archaeological projects undertaken between 1990 and 2010. This volume looks at the long-term trends in archaeological investigation and reporting, places this work within wider social, political, and professional contexts, and reviews its achievements. Information was collected through visits to public and private organizations undertaking archaeological work. Planning Policy Guidance Note 16: Archaeology and Planning (known as PPG16), published in 1990, saw the formal integration of archaeological considerations with the UK town and country planning system that, and set out processes for informed decision-making and the implementation of post-determination mitigation strategies, defined a formative era in archaeological practice and established principles that underpin today’s planning policy framework. The scale of activity represented – more 1000 excavations per year for most of the PPG16 Era – is more than double the level of work undertaken at peak periods during the previous three decades. This comprehensive review of the project presents a wealth of data. A series of case studies examines the illustrate different types of development project, revealing many ways in which projects develop, how archaeology is integrated with planning and execution, and the range of outputs documenting the process, and identified a series of ten important lessons that can be learned from these investigations. Looking into the post-PPG16 Era, the volume considers anticipated developments in the changing worlds of planning, property development, and archaeological practice and proposes the monitoring of archaeological investigations in England using a two-pronged approach that involves self-reporting and periodic strategic overviews.