Architecture as Profession: The Origins of Architectural Practice in the Low Countries in the Fifteenth Century [Paperback]

Merlijn Hurx (Author)

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ISBN: 9782503568256 | Published by: Brepols | Series: Architectura Moderna | Volume: 13 | Year of Publication: 2018 | Language: English 350p, b/w and col illus




Architecture as Profession: The Origins of Architectural Practice in the Low Countries in the Fifteenth Century

Details

Fifteenth-century Florence is generally considered the cradle of the modern architect. There, for the first time since Antiquity, the Vitruvian concept which distinguishes between builder and designer was recognised in architectural theory, causing a fundamental rupture in architectural practice. In this well-established narrative Northern Europe only followed a century later when, along with the diffusion of Italian treatises and the introduction of the all’antica style, a new type of architect began to replace traditional gothic masters. However, historiography has largely overlooked the important transformations in building organisation that laid the foundations for our modern architectural production, such as the advent of affluent contractors, public tenders, and specialised architectural designers, all of which happened in fifteenth-century Northern Europe. Drawing on a wealth of new source material from the Low Countries, this book offers a new approach to the transition from the Middle Ages to the Early Modern Period by providing an alternative interpretation to the predominantly Italo-centric perspective of the current literature, and its concomitant focus on style and on Vitruvian theory.

Table of Contents

Introduction
 
    Professionalisation in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and the ideal of the architect
 
    Economics and the position of the architect
 
    Design and construction
 
    Different sources, methods and approaches
 
    Approach and structure of the book
 
Chapter 1. The liberty to design
 
    Defining the architect
 
    Designs for different media
 
    Liberal arts and the guilds’ monopoly
 
    Patrons and guild authority
 
    Constelyk gemaickt, artistic quality as a licence
 
 Chapter 2. Urban building boom
 
    Urbanisation in the Low Countries
 
    City walls
 
    City churches
 
    Trade halls and town halls
 
    Princely residences
 
    Urban architectural rivalry
 
Chapter 3. The stone trade
 
    The need for stone
 
    Contracting building works
 
    Benefits of the market
 
    Expanding markets
 
    Innovations in the production process
 
    Managing the stone trade
 
Chapter 4. Quarrying at Brussels
 
    Stones and quarries
 
    Commercial importance and stone politics
 
    Brussels entrepreneurs in stone: Godevaert de Bosschere and Lodewijk van Boghem
 
Chapter 5. Profession of the architect
 
    Background and training
 
    Changing conditions of employment
 
    Evert Spoorwater and Rombout Keldermans
 
    Undermasters and methods of communication
 
    Engineer, manager, designer
 
Chapter 6. Communicating the design
 
    The drawing as planning instrument
 
    Innovations in architectural representation
 
    The design in words
 
Chapter 7. Strategies for ‘prefab’ architecture
 
    Plain architecture by prominent architects
 
    Repeated designs
 
Conclusion
 
            Epilogue
 
Appendices
 
    1. Money and measurements
 
    2. Projects by Evert Spoorwater, sources of table 5.1
 
    3. Projects by Rombout Keldermans, sources of table 5.2

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